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Monday, 8 June 2020

Covid-19 and the Limits of Pakistan's Fractured Welfare System

By: Kabeer Dawani and Rehan Rafay Jamil

A beneficiary of the Benazir Income Support Programme receiving her quarterly disbursement. Photo Credit: Rehan Jamil

Poverty in Pakistan may more than double, from 23% to 57%, as a result of the Covid-19 shock, according to one estimate from the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. This is a dire picture and has the potential to undo much of the progress in poverty reduction that has occurred in Pakistan, particularly over the past two decades, unless urgent action is taken by the federal government.

The lockdown versus livelihoods false binary that has been the primary focus of much public discussion in Pakistan has missed the larger and more urgent picture. The virus is here to stay, at least for a year and probably longer until a vaccine is developed, which means that neither is a prolonged lockdown sustainable and nor will the economy return to the levels it was at before. In fact, with the impending forecast for a global recession, Pakistan’s already slowing economy is likely to contract — the IMF forecasts that the economy will shrink by 1.5%.

Unfortunately, Pakistan’s poorest citizens will suffer most in the imminent downturn. This means that our government needs to take urgent measures to protect the livelihoods of the most vulnerable citizens. Daily wage earners, migrants, and informal sector workers must be at the centre of the design of more expansive social safety nets.

In this essay, we note the shortcomings of Pakistan's existing welfare system in light of the pandemic. We also highlight the need for expanding Pakistan’s social safety nets in a systemic way, while learning lessons from past experiences with various programmes and what has been done in other similar countries.

BISP and Ehsaas Emergency Cash transfers

The Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP), Pakistan’s largest federally funded social safety net, has been at the centre of the federal government’s response to Covid-19. From the programme’s existing 4 million beneficiaries, the Ehsaas Emergency Cash transfers has extended one-time cash disbursement of Rs12,000 to an additional 8 million households. These emergency cash transfers are the biggest in Pakistan’s history and were made possible because the country has developed a nationwide cash transfer delivery system under BISP including the use of digital technology. While this is a very positive first step, these one-time cash transfers must be the start of a more long-term approach to social welfare, which also reaches segments of the population that do not have mobile and internet access or national identity cards. Technology can aid public outreach, but is no substitute for investments in capacity at the local level.

The BISP cash transfer programme was a significant milestone in establishing Pakistan’s limited welfare architecture. The scale of the programme has been an important step to redefine the social contract enshrined in the Constitution which calls for the state to protect its citizens from risks. There are many lessons to be learned about how BISP became Pakistan’s largest safety net, adopted by three successive elected governments since its establishment in 2008. Perhaps one of the most important lessons was that targeting needs to be well-designed: BISP developed a poverty registry known as the National Socio-Economic Registry (NSER) from which beneficiaries were selected based on welfare indicators known as a proxy means test (PMT). BISP has also undergone rigorous third-party evaluations; there is already some evidence that shows the programme has had impact on nutrition and increasing consumption for some of Pakistan’s poorest households. The programme’s exclusive targeting of women has also been a 'paradigm shift' in addressing the social rights of Pakistan poorest female citizens, millions of whom have received social welfare for the first time in their lives.

However, the Covid-19 pandemic also exposes the limits of Pakistan’s existing welfare architecture. While the government has previously focused on excluding those who it classifies as ineligible for BISP, there is now an equal need to focus on 'errors of exclusion'. In other words, there is a need to reach out to those citizens who should be in the safety net but are excluded for some reason, such as those without mobile phones or national identity cards. The urban poor and migrant workers who come to Pakistan’s cities to seek casual employment are likely suffering the heaviest brunt of the lockdown and slower economic activity, but will largely be unable to access any welfare scheme. Already, a survey conducted in April 2020 by Dr Farah Said and her co-authors found that for small-business owners in Punjab and Sindh, household income had fallen by 90%.

While the expansion of BISP and the additional one-time emergency cash transfers under Ehsaas are an admirable step, given the grim circumstances, these measures in and of themselves will not be sufficient for the aforementioned reasons. There is an urgent need to think more ambitiously about systemic approaches to expanding social safety nets given the pervasive effects of this shock. Importantly, Pakistan must move beyond the standard announcement of ad hoc 'relief packages', which are frequently given to rent-seeking industrialists and business interests, or relying on small donor funded pilots that end when funding dries out.

Expanding Welfare Provision Beyond Cash Transfers

Ensuring food security and employment for the poorest citizens must be the federal government’s urgent priority in the coming months and years. This is no small task and requires careful planning, new and creative ways of targeting those who are outside the safety net, and an unprecedented fiscal commitment to social welfare expansion. International experiences have shown that public works programmes, where the state employs people for various projects, and food distribution programmes, such as providing meals to school children, have been immensely successful in expanding welfare nets. Out of the box thinking is needed to come up with suitable long-term programmes for Pakistan’s context.

In neighbouring India, the foundation of a rights-based welfare system was put in place after 2005, which could play a vital role in addressing the devastating impacts of Covid-19 there. Two key components of India's welfare system are the constitutional guarantees of right to food and the right to work. To make these social entitlements actionable, two programmes were established: a minimum guarantee of food through a nationwide food distribution network known as the Public Distribution System (PDS), and the National Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), which guarantees a hundred days of employment to India’s poorest citizens. Activists and leading economists in India are now calling for their government to expand the PDS food allocations and the number of days of work provided by NREGA to give relief to India’s vulnerable daily wage and migrant workers. In Bangladesh, a similar public works programme provides employment to seasonal agricultural workers during the lean season for rice growing in October- November when there is a dearth of rural employment and concerns about poor families’ ability purchase food supplies.

In Pakistan, despite the successful implementation of a national cash transfer programme, there is no equivalent public works programme to ensure that those who have lost their livelihoods can obtain critical employment in the difficult days ahead. There was briefly an experimentation with the Peoples Work Programme (PPP) in the 1970s, however, lack of proper oversight and poor design resulted in a largely unsuccessful programme that was subsequently disbanded. Past experience with social welfare programmes, such as Zakat and Bait-ul-Maal, also shows that poorly designed programmes can divert social transfers away from their most deserving recipients.

Similarly, with regards to food distribution, Pakistan lacks a national system for food distribution, despite large government procurement of wheat and subsidies for agriculture. The public utility stores, which are also heavily subsidised by the federal government, do not benefit Pakistan's poorest citizens. The more recent Ehsaas-Langar programme simply does not have the outreach to effectively address the scale of malnutrition and hunger prevalent in many parts of Pakistan, which is likely to exacerbate by the impact of the Covid-19 outbreak. According to the Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18, nearly two in five children are stunted in Pakistan, whereas research by Haris Gazdar and Ayesha Mysorewala suggests that 30% of the population experiences hunger.

In numerous countries, public schools provide mid-day meals to students, making the public school an important component of the welfare system. A similar programme in Pakistan could ensure public-school going children receive a simple but nutritious meal. There are many examples of countries of similar income levels to Pakistan that have developed such programmes, which indicates that it is possible if the political will exists to change Pakistan’s spending priorities and expand the country's social safety nets.

Coordinating Federal and Provincial Welfare Responses

Since the passing of the landmark 18th amendment, a substantial portion of social welfare provision, including healthcare and education, has been devolved to the provinces. As a result, there has been an expansion in provincial social welfare programmes reflecting regional priorities. The government of Punjab has run a girls’ education stipend programme to improve enrollment levels for female students, Sindh has extended microcredit to poor women and is in the process of developing a social registry to address hunger and malnutrition prevalent in the province. At the same time, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has expanded health insurance to its poorest citizens. These examples of provincial social welfare are important, but also underline the fact that the provinces simply do not have the resources or existing programmes in place to address the challenges for welfare provision that Covid-19 has created.

The concerns about insufficient federal government support to the provinces in responding to the outbreak were echoed in a recent session of the National Assembly by a cross-section of parliamentarians, and these concerns need to be taken seriously by the country's policy makers. Covid-19 provides an important opportunity for Pakistan to expand and consolidate its fractured welfare system. Numerous governments in Pakistan have expressed the desire to build a welfare state, but those rhetorical appeals seem hollow unless supported by concrete steps to expand the scope of Pakistan’s limited existing safety nets. The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in a complex public health, economic and social crisis that requires our policymakers to act decisively and build consensus to develop well-designed programmes that complement rather than compete with the existing welfare programmes at both the federal and provincial levels.

The BISP, which was also established amidst a global financial crisis, has been an important experience for Pakistan in building a credible national social safety net. It is now time to build on the lessons of BISP and think about additional long-term programmes that will address the pressing health, employment and hunger concerns for Pakistan’s poorest citizens. Evidence from across the globe shows that well-designed social safety nets not only play a critical role in reducing poverty, but also help strengthen fractured national solidarities and citizenship in new democracies where the social contract between the state and citizens has been weak. The costs of ignoring current welfare challenges will be devastating for Pakistan’s most marginalised citizens unless new and ambitious public policy measures are taken.


This essay was first published on Dawn.com on 23rd May 2020 and is reproduced here with the authors' permission.

35 comments:

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  4. HERPES CURE....THIS IS REAL ! TAKE TIME TO READ

    TESTIMONY OF HOW I GOT CURED FROM GENITAL HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS WITHIN 14DAYS[with Herbal Traditional medicine]

    Hello Everyone out there, I'm Toshia Cook, from Texas USA. I am here to give my testimony about a Herbalist called Dr SAYO, who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 in 2010, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was at the river side thinking where I could get solution. so a lady walked to me asking me why I was so sad and i opened up all to her telling her my problem, she told me that she could help me out, she introduced me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 and gave me his email, so i mailed him. He told me all the things I needed to do and also gave me instructions, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken and also need a help, you can also email him via: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail .com) OR Contact Sayo by check FB Page https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  

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    ReplyDelete
  5. I used to suffer from HERPES GENITAL for about 3 years so I can relate to people who have the cure. No medications or treatments ever really did anything for me. I tried them all and no one worked. but I was actually able to completely cure HERPES naturally after countless hours of online research. What worked for me is as follows: I saw  Dr Oje Abacha Information online that he normally cure and treat disease and infirmities with his Herbal Medicine, I never really believed the people who were recommending him thou i saw on blog about 6 people were also testifying on how they were cured by Dr Oje Abacha and stillEllen recommend Dr Oje Abacha who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES GENITAL VIRUS and gave me his email, so i mail him He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which Followed properly. Before I knew what was happening after two weeks the HERPES GENITAL VIRUS that were in my body vanished . so if you are heart broken and also need a help, you can also w email him:oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com .or through his WhatsApp +2348159734766    if you are infected with any disease like HIV,AIDS,CANCER, DIABETES,  LOVE SPELL, HERPES.PVC, or any other disease you can also be happy like me by contacting.....Name: Dr Oje Abacha      

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Sayo cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Sayo the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his email: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Sayo that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via email: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) check his FB page:  https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ OR visit his websites website; http://sayoherbalhealer.website2.me/  check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  

    ReplyDelete
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  11. I want to give a testimony on how I got cured from Herpes Virus. Few months back I was having some symptoms . I went to see a doctor and many blood tests were done on me, later on I was told I had Herpes. My doctor told me that there's no cure for Herpes I felt bad, I went online searching for a possible cure for Herpes Virus, I saw a post of Dr Aba a herbal doctor that's helping people get cured from HIV, HEPATITIS B, CANCER e.t.c. I contacted him and told him how I'm feeling and he said his herbal medicine can cure me. He sent me the medicine via UPS delivery service and I received the medicine some days after he sent it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him. Before the completion of the medication the symptoms stopped. I went to the doctor and carried out another blood test, surprisingly I was Negative. I haven't had any symptoms anymore. Dr. Aba is great and you can contact via (drabaherbalcenter@gmail.com) or message him on via whatsApp at +2349050514983   

    ReplyDelete
  12. I'm giving a testimony about Dr Nogadu the great Herbalist, he has the cure to all manner of diseases, he cured my herpes simplex virus, though I went through different website I saw different testimonies about different spell casters and herbalist, I was like: 'Many people's have the herpes simplex virus cure why are people still suffering from it?' I though of it, then I contact Dr Nogadu via email, I didn't believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared it (CURE) and sent it to me through Air freight Online Courier Service for delivery, he gave my details to the Courier Office, they told me that 2-4 days I will receive the parcel and i took the medicine as prescribed by him and I went for check up 2 week after finishing the medicine, I was tested herpes simplex virus negative, if you are herpes simplex virus patient do me a favour by contacting him and I assure anyone who is suffering from it, your problem will never remain the same again you will be cured also Dr Nogadu help my brother wife to cure her cervical cancer she was suffering from the past 5 years, After he {cure} my herpes simplex virus, then my brother heard about it, he went home to tell his wife about Dr Nogadu then his wife email him and explain her problem to him, he also prepare herbal medicine and he use Air freight courier service to sent her the herbal medicine and he instruct her on how she will be using it for 14 days, That on the 15 days of it, she should go and check her self in the hospital and she did as she was instructed by Dr Nogadu, to GOD be the glory she was cure of her cervical cancer which she was suffering from for the past 5 years thanks to these great man we will ever remain grateful to you sir for the good work you did in our family. When you contact him, make sure you tell him that I refer you.. contact him via: drnogaduherbalist@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2347010627760.

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  13. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him: +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete
  14. HERPES CURE IS REAL:
    Indeed Doctor Disu has a cure for Herpes Virus, I was once victim of the herpes virus with many epidemics on my body, I was cured of the virus thanks to the help of Doctor Disu herbal medicine. I have met most of his patient testimonials on blogs and social media pages, cured of various illnesses. I contacted him with his email address to which he replied and asked me a few questions and the preparation method for which I paid, he sent me herbal medicines and with his prescription I drank herbal medicine for 21 days and the epidemics on my body were healed after concluding herbal medicine, I went for the test and my result was negative with no trace of virus in my blood. You can also be cured, contact him on his official email; africanherbalcure@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2348167485904.

    He said he had an herbal remedy for
    Diabetes, cancer, PENIS ENLARGMENT, UTI, HPV
    heart disease and liver disease and many more.
    website: https://drdisuafricanherbalcure.weebly.com

    ReplyDelete
  15. Never give up in life they all say no cure to Herpes Virus which is a big lie I have pass through many process also i never believe there is really cure to HERPES until I meet Dr. Kham the doctor that have been helping many people for many years, I come across this doctor online when I was searching for cure online I found out about this man, and to my greatest surprise this man have the herbal medicine which I have been looking for years I explain my problem to him through the email I found on someone who testify about him also, Dr. Kham write me a reply and explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 4 days and I took it according to the way Dr. Kham instructed, I was so happy after two week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative that was the day I have the tears of joy you can also get in contact with my doctor through his email now dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348159922297, You can Also Visit his website to know more about him at > https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/  or https://drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba    He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV, HIV, Diabetes, Fibroid, Infections,ulcer  ETC        

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  16. I thought my life had nothing to offer anymore because life became meaningless to me because I had HERPES virus, the symptoms became very severe and bold and made my family run from and abandoned me so they won't get infected. I gave up everything, my hope, dreams,vision and job because the doctor told me there's no cure. I consumed so many drugs but they never cured me but hid the symptoms inside me making it worse. I was doing some research online someday when I came across testimonies of some people of how DR omohan cured them from HERPES virus, I never believed at first and thought it was a joke but later decided to contact him on the details provided and when I messaged him we talked and he sent me his herbal medicine and told me to go for a test after two weeks. Within 9 days of medication the symptoms disappeared and when I went for a test Lo and behold I was NEGATIVE by the Doctor Who tested me earlier. Thank you DR omohan because I forever owe you my life and I'll keep on telling the world about you. If you are going through same situation worry no more and contact DR omohan via dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail. com or WhatsApp him via +2348164816038                                                                             https://www.fb.com/dromohanherbalmedicin         

    ReplyDelete
  17. Am testifying of the miraculous work of a great traditional doctor called  Dr Maggi. I have been suffering from herpes since last 2 years with my Husband but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine made by  Dr Maggi   the great healer, I was browsing the Internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how  Dr Maggi cure her from Herpes Disease. I quickly contacted him to get the cure and today i am now free from the Virus,drmaggieherbalhome82@gmail.com you can also call or whatsApp him on +14097946086 













    Am testifying of the miraculous work of a great traditional doctor called  Dr Maggi. I have been suffering from herpes since last 2 years with my Husband but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine made by  Dr Maggi   the great healer, I was browsing the Internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how  Dr Maggi cure her from Herpes Disease. I quickly contacted him to get the cure and today i am now free from the Virus,drmaggieherbalhome82@gmail.com you can also call or whatsApp him on +14097946086 














    Am testifying of the miraculous work of a great traditional doctor called  Dr Maggi. I have been suffering from herpes since last 2 years with my Husband but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine made by  Dr Maggi   the great healer, I was browsing the Internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how  Dr Maggi cure her from Herpes Disease. I quickly contacted him to get the cure and today i am now free from the Virus,drmaggieherbalhome82@gmail.com you can also call or whatsApp him on +14097946086 

    ReplyDelete
  18. Definitely and totally cured of herpes virus by Doctor Razor's Quick cure for Herpes. My Sincere Gratitude to Dr Razor, I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 November 13 2018, I went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, I was confused because the medical drugs has become my daily food, but i decided to sort after Natural Herbs. One day I sat beside the pool, Browsing and thinking where I could get a solution to end this predicament. I saw a blog on how Dr Razor cured people with his herbal medicine, i did not believe but i just decided to give him a try, Visit Doctor's Razor Website : https://drrazorherbalhome.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome . I contacted him and he prepared the herbs for me which I took, and he instructed me to go for a check up, after the test i was confirmed with herpes negative, i am so happy. If you have any problem or you are also infected with any disease, kindly contact him now with his Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or Whatsapp/call +2349065420442This testimonial serves as an expression of my gratitude.
    He also have a herbal cure for COLD SORE,
    SHINGLES,
    CANCER(Cannabis Oil),
    HPV,
    ASTHMA,
    IMPOTENCE,
    BARENESS/INFERTILITY ..
    Contact him on this email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , or Whatsapp/call his cell phone number on +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  19. It’s obvious some patients with herpes are being enslaved to the antiviral and other supplementary Orthodox medicine just to help suppress the virus and not a cure. I have been with the virus since 2015 until I was introduced by a blogger who also narrated her story online on how she was cured of Genital Herpes after using Dr bobizua Herbal Medicine. This is a year and 2 weeks since I was delivered from genital Herpes. All thanks to God for using this Great herbalist to heal me. I have promised to keep telling good things about Dr bobizua. Please feel free to share Your problems with him and don’t forget to tell him I did refer you to Him. Thanks. Write him on mail drbobizua20@gmail.com He deals with Alzheimer virus, Cancer, HIV, Herpes, Genital, warts, ALS, BV, UTI, Virginal infection, Genital, Wart, HPV, Hepatitis A/B, Good luck charms, HSV, Pregnancy, Ex back.
    for more info
    email_--drbobizua20@gmail.com
    call\whatsapp _ +2347026251438

    ReplyDelete
  20. I am so Happy to be writing this article here, I am here to explore a blog about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS . I was positive about the deadly Virus called HERPES and I lost hope completely because I was rejected even by my closet friends. I searched online to know and inquire about a cure for HERPES and I saw Dr EFE testimony online on how he was cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! After 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FEDEX or DHL and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! It's really like a dream but i'm so happy! that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email: (supersolutionspell@gmail.com) you can contact him on mobile number +2349030576603 OR https://herpescurenatural1.blogspot.com/   
    He said have the herb to cure difference cure for any sickness
    (1) HERPES,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV AIDS,
    (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
    (5) HEPATITIS B,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA... 

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  21. I have been suffering from Herpes for the past 3 years and 8 months, and ever since then i have been taking series of treatment but there was no improvement until i came across testimonies of Dr Sayo on how he has been curing different people from different diseases all over the world, then i contacted him as well. After our conversation he sent me the medicine which i took according to his instructions. When i was done taking the herbal medicine i went for a medical checkup and to my greatest surprise i was cured from Herpes. My heart is so filled with joy. If you are suffering from Herpes or any other disease you can contact Dr Sayo today on this Email address: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) or WhatsApp him on this Tell.Number +2349012175679 Visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/    also visit website: http://sayoherbalhealinghome.com/ or check blogs: https://naturerootandherbscures.blogspot.com/

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  22. Good evening to you all I want to write a shortly message to the world how doctor ehiaguna help with his great herbal medicine to cured me from this horrible virus HSV 1 and 2 I get his email from someone name Olivia mason how she was also cured by doctor ehiaguna I never believe there was cure until I meet her testimony, I contacted doctor ehiaguna I don’t believe there was cure well I am so happy to write this testimony to the world, this man immediately when I sent him email and this man response within 20 minus and give me the necessary process and the herbal was sent to within 4 day I took it according to the instruction so with 2 week I was completely cured and I get my test done I was confirm negative I am so happy if you want to get his contact you can message him with this email drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953.visit his website https://effectiveherbalcurehome.blogspot.com/ he can fix this.HIV.HEPATITIS.ANTHRAX.HPV.CANCER.ALSAND ALSO SOLVE YOUR RELATIONSHIP PROBLEM

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  23. Good evening to you all I want to write a shortly message to the world how doctor ehiaguna help with his great herbal medicine to cured me from this horrible virus HSV 1 and 2 I get his email from someone name Olivia mason how she was also cured by doctor ehiaguna I never believe there was cure until I meet her testimony, I contacted doctor ehiaguna I don’t believe there was cure well I am so happy to write this testimony to the world, this man immediately when I sent him email and this man response within 20 minus and give me the necessary process and the herbal was sent to within 4 day I took it according to the instruction so with 2 week I was completely cured and I get my test done I was confirm negative I am so happy if you want to get his contact you can message him with this email drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953.visit his website https://effectiveherbalcurehome.blogspot.com/ he can fix this.HIV.HEPATITIS.ANTHRAX.HPV.CANCER.ALSAND ALSO SOLVE YOUR RELATIONSHIP PROBLEM

    ReplyDelete
  24. HERPES CURE IS REAL:
    Indeed Doctor Eke has a cure for Herpes Virus, I was once victim of the herpes virus with many epidemics on my body, I was cured of the virus thanks to the help of Doctor Eke herbal medicine. I have met most of his patient testimonials on blogs and social media pages, cured of various illnesses. I contacted him with his email address to which he replied and asked me a few questions and the preparation method for which I paid, he sent me herbal medicines and with his prescription I drank herbal medicine for 21 days and the epidemics on my body were healed after concluding herbal medicine, I went for the test and my result was negative with no trace of virus in my blood. You can also be cured, contact him on his official email; Dr ekeherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2348126606424.

    He said he had an herbal remedy for
    Diabetes, cancer, PENIS ENLARGMENT, UTI, HPV

    https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Eke-herbal-treatments-106461774516092/
    heart disease and liver disease and many more.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him: +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete
  26. I was diagnosed of HERPES Virus in 2018 and I have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medication to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try , when i contact this herbalist via his email and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to via UPS delivery company service, when i received this cure, he gave me step by directions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was totally cured of this deadly disease within 14days of usage, I am now free from the deadly disease called herpes, all thanks to Dr. USELU you can rich this great herbal doctor via his email: (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) call or whatsapp him on his mobile number (+2347052898482) 

    ReplyDelete
  27. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr. Silver and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to Dr. Silver telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr. assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr. Silver (drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com) sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address ( drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete