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Thursday, 14 May 2020

Economic Dynamics and Resource Envelopes


Karachi amidst lockdown. Photo credit: Wasim Gazdar

Like many other countries, Pakistan continues to debate the trade-off between lives and livelihoods in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic. Much of this debate, it appears, has had two distinguishing features in Pakistan; (i) that it is static – in the sense that it views immediate losses in comparison to immediate gains in terms of lives and livelihoods, rather than its impact over clearly defined short and medium terms; and (ii) that a muddled narrative is being put out by different stakeholders – the federal and provincial governments, other state agencies, doctors, big business and small traders. That competing interests will pull in different directions is routine but when the political leadership is unable to aggregate this diversity and put forth a coherent perspective in an emergency, it inevitably leads to confusion amongst the public at large and fragmentation at the policy level.
Part of this confusion is also reflected in determining the fiscal response to the pandemic. Granted that it is an evolving situation but some determination of size of the resource envelope that can be brought to bear for ramping up the health infrastructure, the provision of social protection and saving small businesses during the pandemic will help different tiers of government to calibrate their responses in a more focused manner. It will also reduce uncertainty in markets and the public at large. Transparency will not hurt in an emergency. It can only help.
Dynamic Thinking on the Economy
From what we know about epidemics in general and Covid-19 in particular, flattening the curve of the disease requires slowing down the economy. Bringing down the rate of spread (known as R naught in epidemiological lingo) through a lockdown at one or several points in time will impact the economy differently. Therefore, the relevant metric to assess the economic impact in this situation should not be the here and now but an annualized cycle (short-term) and the medium-term future period, say the next 2-4 years.
Historical analysis of the Spanish Flu of 1918 as well as preliminary modelling on the Covid-19 pandemic done by Yale University demonstrates that initial lockdowns reduce the spread of the disease and ease medium-term pressures on labour supply and aggregate demand through reduced rates of fatality and morbidity. By not implementing a lockdown until the R naught declines (or the curve of Covid-19 positive cases starts declining) we will be trading off livelihoods in the immediate term with more cycles of the pandemic in the future. We will thus have more cycles of shortages in labour supply – because of higher rates of death, morbidity, and caregiving for those who are sick – as well as disruptions in supply chains and aggregate demand in the short and medium future. Strict initial lockdowns can result in a V shaped recovery in terms of economic growth, whereas a more ambivalent response will mean the recovery will be U shaped and if the virus is allowed to run riot, then we are staring down an L shaped economic outcome over the next four to five years. Choices made along this spectrum now will determine economic outcomes in the short to medium term future.
It goes without saying that lockdowns hit those without a secure means of livelihood (casual and daily wage workers as well as those in small businesses) the hardest. Lockdowns will also collapse if supply chains for essentials are not kept functional. Thankfully so far, the supply chains have by and large worked relatively smoothly throughout the country. The matter of social protection, however, has left a lot to be desired. The Federal Government is in the process of disbursing Rs. 144 billion amongst 10 million plus women who have been on the BISP register through the Ehsaas Program. While there may be some overlap between those who have specifically lost livelihoods because of the lockdown, these lists are predominantly rural and the pandemic spread so far is mainly in the urban, metropolitan areas. This misspecification in targeting is being addressed now through a separate scheme, losing precious time, which in turn has impacted the legitimacy of lockdowns.
A muddled narrative on the lockdown as well as delay in rolling out appropriate social protection support has given currency to the notion of ‘smart lockdowns.’ These models are based on the observation that both the administrative capacity and legitimacy of a full lockdown is limited and the short-term cost of a full lockdown is too high in terms of livelihoods. Therefore, after widespread testing, there should be a ‘smart’ lockdown of those geographical ‘hotspots’ where there are more Covid-19 cases, while keeping other areas open. This method is premised on proactive (rather than the currently prevalent reactive) testing. This begs the question about the fiscal and administrative capacity to test proactively and to do it fast enough and its data processed swiftly so that a smart lockdown can be implemented. As a result, even after a fortnight of the mantra of smart lockdowns being peddled, it is yet to begin at any level.
The Resource Envelope
Much of the confusion regarding the policy on lockdowns is underpinned by an implicit notion that the State lack resources to provide adequate protection to the poor and simultaneously ramp up the health infrastructure. But how limited is the resource envelope? This debate has not happened yet in Pakistan. Knowledgeable commentators have put estimates in the range of 2.5 to 5% of GDP. Whether it is within this limit or can be more is essentially a function of the subjective assessment of the political leadership on their perception of the pandemic. Another way to think about the resource envelope the nation is willing to roll out is to juxtapose the situation with a war with a visible enemy.
The Covid-19 pandemic has altered the contours of Pakistan’s fiscal space on both sides of the ledger. On the one hand, fiscal space has been created because of aid from donors – the IMF, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, debt deferment from the G-20 – and from a significant reduction in international oil prices and savings on interest payments because of the decline in interest rates. On the other hand, the lockdown has reduced tax revenues (both FBR and provincial revenues). Pakistan’s exports have taken a hit because of the global nature of the pandemic and remittances from overseas Pakistanis are expected to reduce also. Whether or not both sides balance each other out is, however, just one element of fiscal space. The government has room to reallocate resources from the existing allocations, mainly from PSDP expenditures and the defence budget. The federal government also has ample room to borrow domestically and if push comes to shove, the central bank can enhance money supply, even though that will be inflationary. To put it simply, the federal government’s fiscal space has a fair degree of elasticity.
The other issue regarding the resource envelope is distribution of resources across the federal government and the federating units. Because of their constitutional mandate, the bulk of the health expenditure is being borne by the provincial governments. They are also incurring a cost in administering the lockdown and where possible providing social protection as well. They are, however, in a fiscal bind. Because of the reduction in FBR revenues, the provinces will take a hit on their share of divisible pool taxes and their ‘own source’ revenues will also decline because of the lockdown. Additionally, the borrowing capacity of provinces is close to naught.
In this situation, it is the federal government that has a two-fold responsibility. One, to determine the fiscal space that is available and second, to create mechanisms for the provinces to overcome their resource constraints. Will the federal government provide grants to provincial governments, create a special zero interest rate credit line for them through the central bank or deduct it from future shares of their divisible pool allocations? These are important questions that need discussion and resolution. Fortunately, Pakistan’s constitutional architecture allows for these matters to be resolved. The National Economic Council, the Council of Common Interests and the National Finance Commission are forums where these issues can be debated and resolved amicably. As the pandemic peaks and the annual budget season is on the anvil, these matters have to be brought on the front burner.
This article first appeared in the Jinnah Institute’s ‘Lockdown Paradox’ series on 6th May 2020 and is republished here with the author’s consent.

23 comments:

  1. Hello viewer’s
    I don’t have much to say there are so may scammers going on online so we cant detect the real herbal medicine doctors. Thank GOD for leading me, please don’t ignore this post is real Dr Emmanuel, is a real herbal Doctor, he cured me from Herpes virus, i am living so happy and free , i was fully recovered within 4 weeks of usage of dr Emmanuel herbal medicine ,please viewers out there that have any deadly disease don't fail to contact him via his email; nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or WhatsApp/Call: +2348140073965  thanks once again to dr Emmanuel GOD bless you abundantly  
    he also cured HIV/AIDS,CANCER,GENITAL WART,COPD,BRAIN TUMOR

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. HERPES CURE....THIS IS REAL ! TAKE TIME TO READ

      TESTIMONY OF HOW I GOT CURED FROM GENITAL HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS WITHIN 14DAYS[with Herbal Traditional medicine]

      Hello Everyone out there, I'm Toshia Cook, from Texas USA. I am here to give my testimony about a Herbalist called Dr SAYO, who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 in 2010, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was at the river side thinking where I could get solution. so a lady walked to me asking me why I was so sad and i opened up all to her telling her my problem, she told me that she could help me out, she introduced me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 and gave me his email, so i mailed him. He told me all the things I needed to do and also gave me instructions, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken and also need a help, you can also email him via: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail .com) OR Contact Sayo by check FB Page https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  

      He also have a herbal cure for HIV,
      CANCER,
      ASTHMA,
      IMPOTENCE,
      BARENESS/INFERTILITY ...

      CURE YOUR SELF FROM THAT ILLNESS TODAY,DON'T SPREAD YOUR INFECTION OR DISEASES TO OTHER PEOPLE.
      Contact him today and you will have a testimony...Good luck  

      Delete





    2. Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Sayo cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Sayo the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his email: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Sayo that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via email: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) check his FB page:  https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ OR visit his websites website; http://sayoherbalhealer.website2.me/  check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  












      Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Sayo cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Sayo the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his email: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Sayo that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via email: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) check his FB page:  https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ OR visit his websites website; http://sayoherbalhealer.website2.me/  check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  



      Delete
    3. I am so Happy to be writing this article here, I am here to explore a blog about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS . I was positive about the deadly Virus called HERPES and I lost hope completely because I was rejected even by my closet friends. I searched online to know and inquire about a cure for HERPES and I saw Dr EFE testimony online on how he was cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! After 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FEDEX or DHL and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! It's really like a dream but i'm so happy! that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email: (supersolutionspell@gmail.com) you can contact him on mobile number +2349030576603 OR https://herpescurenatural1.blogspot.com/   
      He said have the herb to cure difference cure for any sickness
      (1) HERPES,
      (2) DIABETES,
      (3) HIV AIDS,
      (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
      (5) HEPATITIS B,
      (6) IMPOTENCE,
      (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
      (8) DIARRHEA
      (9) ASTHMA... 

      Delete
    4. Good evening to you all I want to write a shortly message to the world how doctor ehiaguna help with his great herbal medicine to cured me from this horrible virus HSV 1 and 2 I get his email from someone name Olivia mason how she was also cured by doctor ehiaguna I never believe there was cure until I meet her testimony, I contacted doctor ehiaguna I don’t believe there was cure well I am so happy to write this testimony to the world, this man immediately when I sent him email and this man response within 20 minus and give me the necessary process and the herbal was sent to within 4 day I took it according to the instruction so with 2 week I was completely cured and I get my test done I was confirm negative I am so happy if you want to get his contact you can message him with this email drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953.visit his website https://effectiveherbalcurehome.blogspot.com/ he can fix this.HIV.HEPATITIS.ANTHRAX.HPV.CANCER.ALSAND ALSO SOLVE YOUR RELATIONSHIP PROBLEM

      Delete
  2. The blog is the best that is extremely useful to keep. I can share the ideas of the future as this is really what I was looking for, I am very comfortable and pleased to come here and I got a lot of motivation from your blog. Thank you very much!
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    ReplyDelete
  3. I used to suffer from HERPES GENITAL for about 3 years so I can relate to people who have the cure. No medications or treatments ever really did anything for me. I tried them all and no one worked. but I was actually able to completely cure HERPES naturally after countless hours of online research. What worked for me is as follows: I saw  Dr Oje Abacha Information online that he normally cure and treat disease and infirmities with his Herbal Medicine, I never really believed the people who were recommending him thou i saw on blog about 6 people were also testifying on how they were cured by Dr Oje Abacha and stillEllen recommend Dr Oje Abacha who uses herbal medication to cure HERPESGENITAL VIRUS and gave me his email, so i mail him He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which Followed properly. Before I knew what was happening after two weeks the HERPES GENITAL VIRUS that were in my body vanished . so if you are heart broken and also need a help, you can also w email him:oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com .or through his WhatsApp +2348159734766    if you are infected with any disease like HIV,AIDS,CANCER, DIABETES,  LOVE SPELL, HERPES.PVC, or any other disease you can also be happy like me by contacting.....Name: Dr Oje Abacha    

    ReplyDelete
  4. HERPES CURE....THIS IS REAL ! TAKE TIME TO READ

    TESTIMONY OF HOW I GOT CURED FROM GENITAL HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS WITHIN 14DAYS[with Herbal Traditional medicine]

    Hello Everyone out there, I'm Toshia Cook, from Texas USA. I am here to give my testimony about a Herbalist called Dr SAYO, who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 in 2010, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was at the river side thinking where I could get solution. so a lady walked to me asking me why I was so sad and i opened up all to her telling her my problem, she told me that she could help me out, she introduced me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 and gave me his email, so i mailed him. He told me all the things I needed to do and also gave me instructions, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken and also need a help, you can also email him via: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail .com) OR Contact Sayo by check FB Page https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  

    He also have a herbal cure for HIV,
    CANCER,
    ASTHMA,
    IMPOTENCE,
    BARENESS/INFERTILITY ...

    CURE YOUR SELF FROM THAT ILLNESS TODAY,DON'T SPREAD YOUR INFECTION OR DISEASES TO OTHER PEOPLE.
    Contact him today and you will have a testimony...Good luck  

    ReplyDelete
  5. Great job, This content is very great content, I got really good information from this content and it helps me a lot, I hope it can help many people like me.
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    ReplyDelete
  6. I used to suffer from HERPES GENITAL for about 3 years so I can relate to people who have the cure. No medications or treatments ever really did anything for me. I tried them all and no one worked. but I was actually able to completely cure HERPES naturally after countless hours of online research. What worked for me is as follows: I saw  Dr Oje Abacha Information online that he normally cure and treat disease and infirmities with his Herbal Medicine, I never really believed the people who were recommending him thou i saw on blog about 6 people were also testifying on how they were cured by Dr Oje Abacha and stillEllen recommend Dr Oje Abacha who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES GENITAL VIRUS and gave me his email, so i mail him He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which Followed properly. Before I knew what was happening after two weeks the HERPES GENITAL VIRUS that were in my body vanished . so if you are heart broken and also need a help, you can also w email him:oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com .or through his WhatsApp +2348159734766    if you are infected with any disease like HIV,AIDS,CANCER, DIABETES,  LOVE SPELL, HERPES.PVC, or any other disease you can also be happy like me by contacting.....Name: Dr Oje Abacha      

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hi Friends i am so glad to writing this article today to tell the world how Dr Sayo cured my HSV VIRUS,i have been detected with HSV-1 AND HSV-2 since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete bizarre and agony,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HSV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain,until a certain i was checking for solution in the internet,then miraculously came across Dr Sayo the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals HSV-1 AND HSV-2 INFECTION,then i contacted his email: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com i explained everything to him and prepared a cure that cure my HSV-1 AND HSV-2 disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why wait and be suffer when there is someone like Dr Sayo that can cure any disease HIV/ CANCER/ HEPATITIS B VIRUS, you can contact his via email: (sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com) check his FB page:  https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/ OR visit his websites website; http://sayoherbalhealer.website2.me/  check blog: https://sayoherbalhealer.blogspot.com/  

    ReplyDelete
  8. Greetings to every one here. I want to let every one know that HPV is a serious and deadly disease which can't be cured through drugs or injections by the American doctors but the best way to deal with HPV is by taking natural herbs medicine for it to flushes out the virus and is only few American doctors that know about this herbal medicine from doctor Afrid a great herbalist doctor. I have read about Dr Afrid the great herbalist doctor from African who can cure HPV with his powerful herbal medicine. for the people suffering from the following diseases Epilepsy, Hiv, Herpes, Cancer, Als, Hepatitis, Diabetes, Hpv,Infections ETC should contact him for his herbal medicine because his herbal medicine cured all kinds of diseases or virus, i am telling you all this because i am a living testimony and i was cured of Hpv. and my child was cured of epilepsy. Although, i sent him what he requested and he sent me his medicine which i took for two weeks and today when i went for test i was tested Hpv negative. you can reach him through his EMAIL;[drafridherbalhome@gmail.com] And you can also whatsapp/call him through his number +2349057260738                 website  https://dr-afrid-herbal-home.webnode.com/    
              

    ReplyDelete
  9. Am Lucy Morgan from Atlanta Georgia  i was suffering from genital herpes, oral herpes, shingles. Before I came in contact with dr. Kham It is no longer news that the Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Herpes Virus is increasing by the day, The fear is that many people living with the sickness are scared of saying it because of the stigma that comes along with it.I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it.I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world had crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could live a normal life if I took my medications, In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the voodoo world. I went online and searched for every powerful trado-medical practitioner that I could severe, because I heard that the African Voodoo Priests had a cure for Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr. Kham website who offered to help me, He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Two days ago to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that " I am NEGATIVE" You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Voodoo Priest via this EMAIL dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or dr.khamcaregiver@outlook.com]  WHATSAPP NUMBER +2348159922297, You can Also Visit his website to know more about him at > https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/    

    HE CONFIDENTLY TOLD ME HE CAN ALSO SOLVE THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS WITH ANY DELAY IN TIME

    PREGNANCY spell

    EPILEPSY cure spell

    GENPILENCI

    HIV AIDS.

    PREGNANCY

    DIABETICS

    STROKE.

    EXPANDS OF PENIS BREAST

    H.P.V TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4. TYPE 5.

    HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

    HERPES.

    SYPHILIS.

    CANCER.

    HEPATITIS A B and C.

    HIGH BLOOD PRESSURES AND BODY BOILS.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him: +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete
  11. Never give up in life they all say no cure to Herpes Virus which is a big lie I have pass through many process also i never believe there is really cure to HERPES until I meet Dr. Kham the doctor that have been helping many people for many years, I come across this doctor online when I was searching for cure online I found out about this man, and to my greatest surprise this man have the herbal medicine which I have been looking for years I explain my problem to him through the email I found on someone who testify about him also, Dr. Kham write me a reply and explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 4 days and I took it according to the way Dr. Kham instructed, I was so happy after two week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative that was the day I have the tears of joy you can also get in contact with my doctor through his email now dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348159922297, You can Also Visit his website to know more about him at > https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/  or https://drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba    He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV, HIV, Diabetes, Fibroid, Infections,ulcer  ETC        

    ReplyDelete
  12. Definitely and totally cured of herpes virus by Doctor Razor's Quick cure for Herpes. My Sincere Gratitude to Dr Razor, I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 November 13 2018, I went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, I was confused because the medical drugs has become my daily food, but i decided to sort after Natural Herbs. One day I sat beside the pool, Browsing and thinking where I could get a solution to end this predicament. I saw a blog on how Dr Razor cured people with his herbal medicine, i did not believe but i just decided to give him a try, Visit Doctor's Razor Website : https://drrazorherbalhome.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome . I contacted him and he prepared the herbs for me which I took, and he instructed me to go for a check up, after the test i was confirmed with herpes negative, i am so happy. If you have any problem or you are also infected with any disease, kindly contact him now with his Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or Whatsapp/call +2349065420442This testimonial serves as an expression of my gratitude.
    He also have a herbal cure for COLD SORE,
    SHINGLES,
    CANCER(Cannabis Oil),
    HPV,
    ASTHMA,
    IMPOTENCE,
    BARENESS/INFERTILITY ..
    Contact him on this email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , or Whatsapp/call his cell phone number on +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  13. I am so Happy to be writing this article here, I am here to explore a blog about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS . I was positive about the deadly Virus called HERPES and I lost hope completely because I was rejected even by my closet friends. I searched online to know and inquire about a cure for HERPES and I saw Dr EFE testimony online on how he was cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! After 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FEDEX or DHL and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! It's really like a dream but i'm so happy! that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email: (supersolutionspell@gmail.com) you can contact him on mobile number +2349030576603 OR https://herpescurenatural1.blogspot.com/   
    He said have the herb to cure difference cure for any sickness
    (1) HERPES,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV AIDS,
    (4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
    (5) HEPATITIS B,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA... 

    ReplyDelete
  14. Happiness is all i see now I never thought that I will be cured from HERPES virus again. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HERPES) for the past 3 years now, I had spent a lot of money going from one places to another, from churches to churches, hospitals have been my home every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR ogbeni helped someone in curing his HERPES disease, quickly I copied his email which is dr.ogbeniherbalhome@gmail.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, behold I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him on ( dr.ogbeniherbalhome@gmail.com ) or you can whatsApp his mobile number on +2348103170329
    You can also contact him if are diagnosed with any the virus below
    {a1}HIV and AIDS
    {2}Diabetes
    {3}Epilepsy
    {4} Blood Cancer
    {5} He Can Make you get Pregnancy
    {6.} HPV
    {7} ALS
    {8} Hepatitis B
    {9} Diabetes
    {10}Love Spell
    (11) Fibroid
    https://www.facebook.com/Dr-Ogbeni-100937351577518/

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  15. Good evening to you all I want to write a shortly message to the world how doctor ehiaguna help with his great herbal medicine to cured me from this horrible virus HSV 1 and 2 I get his email from someone name Olivia mason how she was also cured by doctor ehiaguna I never believe there was cure until I meet her testimony, I contacted doctor ehiaguna I don’t believe there was cure well I am so happy to write this testimony to the world, this man immediately when I sent him email and this man response within 20 minus and give me the necessary process and the herbal was sent to within 4 day I took it according to the instruction so with 2 week I was completely cured and I get my test done I was confirm negative I am so happy if you want to get his contact you can message him with this email drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953.visit his website https://effectiveherbalcurehome.blogspot.com/ he can fix this.HIV.HEPATITIS.ANTHRAX.HPV.CANCER.ALSAND ALSO SOLVE YOUR RELATIONSHIP PROBLEM

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  16. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him: +2347012841542 

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  17. I was diagnosed of HERPES Virus in 2018 and I have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medication to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try , when i contact this herbalist via his email and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to via UPS delivery company service, when i received this cure, he gave me step by directions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was totally cured of this deadly disease within 14days of usage, I am now free from the deadly disease called herpes, all thanks to Dr. USELU you can rich this great herbal doctor via his email: (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) call or whatsapp him on his mobile number (+2347052898482) 

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