Pages

Tuesday, 16 May 2017

Who works and why: Detangling women’s agricultural work

by Sidra Mazhar

A woman cuts sugarcane in Mirpurkhas.
Photo credit: Collective team

Throughout the world, women play a very important role in the agricultural sector. In the last few decades, agriculture has undergone a gendered transformation termed the ‘feminization of agriculture’. National level statistics in developing countries show that there has been an increase in female involvement in agriculture accompanied by a steady decline in men’s participation. It is commonly believed that this increased participation in agriculture empowers women economically and socially. However, our LANSA survey on women’s work and nutrition in rural Sindh, where we surveyed new mothers about their work before, during, and after pregnancy, tells a different story.

Our research shows that women’s agricultural work is associated with household income: women from richer households tend to work less, and the prevalence of agricultural work, both farm and livestock related, declines up the wealth scale. Women from better off households are less likely to have ever done farm or livestock work compared to their poorer counterparts. The same is true for women who work while pregnant, with poorer women more likely to work in this situation.

Fewer women do farm work during pregnancy. However, other kinds of work, such as livestock related work, are generally expected of women regardless of which wealth bracket they come from or whether they are pregnant or not. Of course, rich women are still less likely to have done livestock related work, but pregnancy does not seem to have the same dramatic effect on their likelihood of working with livestock as it does with farm related activities.

We also looked at the relationship between work and pregnancy across educational levels, which displayed similar patterns to wealth. This is not entirely surprising, as education is known to be correlated with household wealth. Women with higher levels of education are least likely to participate in farm work, and also show lower rates of participation in livestock work. Educated women, moreover, are more likely to work in non-agricultural activities than women who have had no schooling. The effect of pregnancy is also the sharpest with respect to farming – very few of the women with above primary schooling work during pregnancy compared with over half of those who did not have any schooling.

In terms of other kinds of work, we found that the patterns for non-agricultural work (mostly sewing and embroidery) are quite distinctive from agricultural activities. While pregnancy seems to be associated with a decline in non-agricultural work across socioeconomic strata (in line with the data for other kinds of work), we found that the poorest and the wealthiest women are the least likely to be involved in this activity as compared to women in the middle of the wealth scale. It is likely that this is because the poorest women have little time for non-agricultural work while the richest have little need to do it themselves.

Our findings appear to confirm the basic feature of Pakistan’s rural economy: that women’s agricultural work (particularly farm-related activity) is not a pathway to empowerment, but merely a sign of ‘majboori,’ and having no other choice in the matter. Women who don’t have the need to work (from better off households), or those who have some level of knowledge and agency (inferred from education levels) generally do not participate in agriculture work. The fact that livestock related work seems to be unaffected by the wealth, education and pregnancy status of women suggests that in addition to majboori, there may be an additional, and much stronger element of a gendered division of labour which transcends social and economic mobility.

This blog draws upon a paper titled “The Hidden Economic Backbone- Women in Agriculture” by Sidra Mazhar, Haris Gazdar and Mysbah Balagamwala, presented at the International Conference on Gender, Work and Society, 22nd -23rd April 2017.

6 comments:

  1. Am Lucy Morgan from Atlanta Georgia  i was suffering from genital herpes, oral herpes, shingles. Before I came in contact with dr. Kham It is no longer news that the Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Herpes Virus is increasing by the day, The fear is that many people living with the sickness are scared of saying it because of the stigma that comes along with it.I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it.I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world had crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could live a normal life if I took my medications, In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the voodoo world. I went online and searched for every powerful trado-medical practitioner that I could severe, because I heard that the African Voodoo Priests had a cure for Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr. Kham website who offered to help me, He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Two days ago to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that " I am NEGATIVE" You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Voodoo Priest via this EMAIL dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or dr.khamcaregiver@outlook.com]  WHATSAPP NUMBER +2348159922297, You can Also Visit his website to know more about him at > https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/    

    HE CONFIDENTLY TOLD ME HE CAN ALSO SOLVE THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS WITH ANY DELAY IN TIME

    PREGNANCY spell

    EPILEPSY cure spell

    GENPILENCI

    HIV AIDS.

    PREGNANCY

    DIABETICS

    STROKE.

    EXPANDS OF PENIS BREAST

    H.P.V TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4. TYPE 5.

    HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

    HERPES.

    SYPHILIS.

    CANCER.

    HEPATITIS A B and C.

    HIGH BLOOD PRESSURES AND BODY BOILS.

    ReplyDelete
  2. I Want To Appreciate Dr.OYAGU for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With type 2 Herpes Virus Last year,And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr.OYAGU Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr.OYAGU I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I No That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr OYAGU To Help You Too,And Help Me To Thank Dr.OYAGU For Cure Me, I’m Cured By Dr. OYAGU Herbal Medicine,His Contact Email:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com
    Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete
  3. I was diagnosed of HERPES Virus in 2018 and I have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medication to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try , when i contact this herbalist via his email and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to via UPS delivery company service, when i received this cure, he gave me step by directions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was totally cured of this deadly disease within 14days of usage, I am now free from the deadly disease called herpes, all thanks to Dr. USELU you can rich this great herbal doctor via his email: (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) call or whatsapp him on his mobile number (+2347052898482) 

    ReplyDelete
  4. I still don’t know the right words to express my gratitude to this great man Dr. Uromi. After been diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2months ago, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found testimonies of Great Dr. Uromi online research and on Facebook, Like anybody would be, I was very skeptical about contacting him, but i later did and he opened up to me and told me what was involved and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, I was cured from herpes by the herbal medication I received from him. I never thought that herpes can be cured, from the bottom of my heart I'm truly grateful,i pray you have long life so you can help many more people on earth with your herbal medical support, You can Email him via email Druromiherbalhome@gmail.com or for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this mobile number +2349021374574 , one thing i love most about DR Uromi is honestly, and he is very polite with his patience, everything he told me was what he did, and his herbal medicine are very affordable  

    ReplyDelete
  5. I still don’t know the right words to express my gratitude to this great man Dr. Uromi. After been diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2months ago, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found testimonies of Great Dr. Uromi online research and on Facebook, Like anybody would be, I was very skeptical about contacting him, but i later did and he opened up to me and told me what was involved and he started the remedies for my health. Thank God, I was cured from herpes by the herbal medication I received from him. I never thought that herpes can be cured, from the bottom of my heart I'm truly grateful,i pray you have long life so you can help many more people on earth with your herbal medical support, You can Email him via email Druromiherbalhome@gmail.com or for easy and fast communication you can also call or add him on whats-app with this mobile number +2349021374574 , one thing i love most about DR Uromi is honestly, and he is very polite with his patience, everything he told me was what he did, and his herbal medicine are very affordable  

    ReplyDelete